CONTENTS

FOREWORD

EXPLANATORY OUTLINE

Practical Guide.Base glazes - a key to understanding glaze principles.Limits. Methodology.

PART I BASE GLAZES

1PREPARATIONS Introduction. Group study. Reference books. Base glaze theory and practice. Raw materials. Guidelines for selection of materials.

2BASIC CHEMISTRY Atoms. Molecules. Oxides. Glaze - a glassy mix of oxides. The relationship between recipe, oxide weight % and Seger formula. Converting a Seger formula to oxide weight %. Converting a Seger formula to a recipe.

3GETTING STARTED -- MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS Glaze materials. Clay materials. Equipment and books.

4LINE BLENDS - ASH, CLAY AND ROCK GLAZES Wood ash. Clay. Rock dust. Ball Mills. Volumetric blending - a lot of glazes with a little work. References.

5BASELINE GRIDS AND BIAXlAL BLENDS Baseline grids. Biaxial blends.

6EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE FOR BIAXIAL BLENDS Making the glazes. Applying the glazes and oxides and firing.Assessment tiles and individual tiles.Putting the results in order.Assessment of results.

7ALUMINA AND SILICA IN STONEWARE GLAZES Effects of varying alumina and silica.Sources of alumina in glazes.Sources of silica in glazes.The alumina/silica ratio.

8LIME ALKALI GLAZES The use of calcium in stoneware glazes.Sources of calcium.The use of alkali fluxes in stoneware glazes.Sources of alkalis.Preliminary comments on experiments.The 0.9 Limestone Set.The 0.8 Limestone Set. The 0.7 Limestone Set. The 0.6 Limestone Set. The 0.6 Feldspar Set.

9MAGNESIUM GLAZES Sources of magnesia. The Magnesium Set. Alternative recipes for the Magnesium Set. Intermediate sets.

10ZINC GLAZES Sources of zinc. The Zinc Set. Intermediate sets.

11BARIUM GLAZES Sources of barium. Barium carbonate is poisonous. Intermediate sets. The Barium Set. The Barium Alkaline Set.

12DESIGNING AN EXPERIMENT Design your own base glaze experiment.

13PHASE EQUILIBRIA DIAGRAMS AND EUTECTICS Simple phase equilibria diagrams. More complicated P.E. diagrams. Triaxial diagrams. The effect of increasing the number of ingredients.Reading triaxial phase diagrams.Summary. References.

14CALCULATIONS Converting formula to recipe. The Four Question technique. Percentage calculation. Formula to recipe - model conversion. Exercises. List of raw materials. Conversion of a glaze recipe to a Seger formula. Conversion of analysis data (%) to Seger formula and molecular weight. Formula to recipe - a more difficult example. Simultaneous Equations. The percentage method of glaze calculation. More formula to recipe. Calcining calculations. Parts chart calculations. Partial blends and intermediate blends. Calculating blended glaze recipes.

PART II SPECIFIC GLAZES

15METHODOLOGY Outline. A reference framework for molecular formulae. Test firings. Draw trials. Oxidation - neutral - reduction atmospheres. Mortar and pestle line blending technique.

16CRYSTALLINE GLAZES Devitrification - glass giving rise to crystals. The process of crystallisation. Important factors in crystal growth. Different types of crystalline glazes. Exercises. References.

17MATT GLAZES Introduction. The clay-glaze interface. Exercises: Flux Matts. Alumina matts. Silica matts. References.

18OPAQUE GLAZES. CHUN-BLUE GLAZES Introduction. Opaque glazes. Chun-blue glazes. The chun-blue effect. Factors affecting the development of chun-blue. Chun-type glaze recipes. References.

19DECORATED WHITEWARE. GLAZE FIT Introduction. Whiteness - how will you get it? Body.White slip. Colours. Glazes. Glaze fit. References.

20HIGH IRON GLAZES Introduction. Forms of iron oxide in glazes. Unity formula convention for iron glazes. Experiments. Discussion of results including iron solubility, rust break, chun-blue occurrence and teadust crystals. Specific iron glazes, including honey, tenmoku, kaki, oilspot tenmoku, teadust, tomato red and tessha glazes, and iron glazes using natural materials. References. High iron Stoneware Glazes' by R. R. Hughan.

21CELADON Introduction. The base glaze - its role in celadon glazes. Lung Chuan celadon. Blue celadon. Bubbles in celadon. References.

22KUAN GLAZES Description and the problems involved. Suggested research program. References.

23SHINO GLAZES Traditional Japanese Shino. Nepheline syenite Shino.'Fire colour' in Shino. Technical notes. References.

24COPPER GLAZES Copper as a colourant. Oxidised copper glazes. Reduced copper glazes - copper reds. References.

25NATURAL GLAZES FROM WOODFIRING Introduction. Typical Shigaraki climbing kiln. Using a smaller kiln. A Bizen Kiln. A few hints. Extended firings - glazed and unglazed pots. Ash types and clay types. References.

26ROCK GLAZES Igneous rocks. Identifying rocks and minerals. Crushing and grinding the rock. Ivan Englund on rock glazes. Some simple testing procedures. References. Extract: 'Borax Bead Test'.

INDEX